What is eczema?
Eczema (also known as atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis) is a common, chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disorder. The skin function is impaired leading to porous and dry skin that easily becomes inflamed, susceptible to infection and itchy. Chronically scratched skin may become thickened (lichenified).
An holistic approach is essential:
- Onset under 2 years of age; presence of an itchy rash
- Relevant family/social history – eczema, asthma, hayfever, smokers, pets
- Impact on quality of life for child and family (sleep deprivation, schooling, family dynamics)
- Adverse effects on child such as failure to thrive
- What treatments are being and have been used; how long for; what helped and what did not
- Parental expectations and specific questions should be documented/addressed
- Distribution of eczema and other clinical signs eg generally dry skin, weeping, crusting.
Management - ABC rule
A A void triggers; soaps or anything that bubbles or lathers, cigarette smoke, irritant clothing.
B B land moisturisers which are fragrance-free are an absolute essential part of treatment. Ideally applied 3-4 times daily, prescribe adequate quantities (at least 250-500g/week); patient choice improves concordance; bath additives are not recommended; use emollients to wash (apply before wetting the skin); ideally wash hair over the sink to avoid shampoo on skin causing irritation.
C C ontrol inflammation – match potency of topical steroids (mild, moderate, potent) to the severity of eczema and anatomical site. Use once daily until eczema is settled (usually 1-6 weeks), then decrease to twice weekly use for maintenance. Step-up use to daily during a flare, then wean back down for maintenance therapy (reduces frequency of flares). Topical calcineurin inhibitors are useful as second line treatment. Tacrolimus 0.1% (off-license) can be used for children and is particularly useful when applied to delicate sites ie flexures, eyelids. Oral steroids should not normally be prescribed for children with eczema in primary care without specialist advice. There is unjustified TOPICAL steroid phobia amongst healthcare professionals; there is robust evidence of the safety in long-term use in eczema.
- Investigation – no routine role for allergy testing or exclusion diets unless failure to thrive (under 6 months of age) or obvious triggers in the history
- No evidence for the use of non-sedating antihistamines in eczema but short-term use of sedating antihistamines may improve sleep
- No evidence for use of prescribed garments
- Direct to patient support groups e.g. National Eczema Society and/or other eczema websites; offer written/documented advice to families
- Complications – infection (bacterial or viral) – use of short-term antibiotics or antivirals are appropriate after a swab has been taken if infection is suspected. Avoid long-term use of combination topical agents (eg clotrimazole or fucidic acid with a topical steroid)
- In families with an atopic eczema history, start emollient therapy at birth as this might help reduce the incidence of eczema
- There is no compelling evidence for the use of alternative therapies.
When to refer
- Diagnostic uncertainty
- Failure to respond to treatment
- Steroid atrophy/overuse of topical steroids
- Eczema herpeticum or suspected bacterial infection (eg streptococcal) not responding to treatment
- Severe eczema or systemically unwell child.
Allergy and diet
Infants under 6 months with moderate to severe eczema not responding to optimal topical treatment could be considered for a trial of 4-8 weeks of extensively hydrolysed protein formula whilst awaiting referral to Dermatology. Exclusion diets should not be trialled without dietician guidance or specialist review.
|Clinical features||Specific treatment|
|Infant Facial Eczema||
|Chronic Lichenified Eczema||
Want to learn more about this guideline?
Read the related Guidelines in Practice article
Full guidelines available from: Primary Care Dermatology Societywww.pcds.org.uk/ee/images/uploads/general/Paediatric_Eczema_Pathway-web.pdf
First included: September 2019.
Further information: National Eczema Societywww.eczema.org