Chronic heart failure in adults: management

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Heart failure is a complex syndrome of symptoms and signs. Untreated it has a poor prognosis, but this can be improved considerably with early and optimal treatment.

The symptoms most commonly encountered are breathlessness (exertional dyspnoea, orthopnoea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea), fatigue, and ankle swelling.

This Guidelines summary covers the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure, which is outlined in two separate algorithms.

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