Chronic kidney disease: managing anaemia
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
Erythropoietin deficiency is the primary cause of anaemia associated with CKD. Other causes of renal anaemia include functional or absolute iron deficiency, blood loss, the presence of uraemic inhibitors, reduced half-life of circulating blood cells, and deficiencies of folate or vitamin B12.
Possible adverse effects of anaemia include reduced oxygen utilisation, increased cardiac output and left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced cognition and concentration, reduced libido, and reduced immune responsiveness.
This Guidelines summary provides updated recommendations on diagnostic tests, iron therapies, and treatment of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent resistance.